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History of electromagnetism

Stan Zurek, History of electromagnetism, Encyclopedia Magnetica,

History of electromagnetism - this page is a collection of important discoveries in the history of electromagnetism, ranging from electrostatics, through magnetostatics, to electromagnetics, waves and optic.

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Ancient times

around 2500 BC - Some documents indicate that compass was used in ancient China1)2)
around 500 BC - Magnetic attraction between lodestone and iron studied by Thales of Miletus3)

Before 18th century

1064 - Discovery that iron quenched from red hot acquires magnetization by Zheng Gongliang (China)4)
1088 - Navigational compass invented by Shen Kua (China)5)
1190 - Compass construction described by Alexander Neckam (England)6)
1269 - Polarity of magnetic poles described by Pierre de Maricourt (also known as Peter Peregrinus)7)
1600 - Movement of compass needle and Eearth's magnetic field described by Wiliam Gilbert (see also: gilbert)8)

18th century

1743 - Horseshoe magnet invented by Daniel Bernoulli (Switzerland)9)
1745 - Method of reliable magnetisation of steel developed by Gowin Knight (England)10)
1750 - Law governing forces between poles discovered by John Michell (England)11)
1785 - Coulomb's law of electrostatic forces formulated by Charles-Augustine de Coulomb (France)12)
1786 - Twiching of frog's leg by electricity studied by Luigi Galvani (Italy)13), see also: galvanic
1800 - Electric batery invented by Alessandro Volta (Italy)14), see also: volt

19th century

1820 - Magnetic field around a wire with electric current discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted (see also: oersted) 15)
1820 - Magnetic force between two wires with current demonstrated by André-Marie Ampère (Ampere's law)16)
1820 - Magnetic force due to current calculated by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart (Biot-Savart law)17)
1824 - Iron-cored electromagnet invented by William Sturgeon18)
1826 - Galvanometer invented by Johann Christian Poggendorff19)
1831 - Electromagnetic induction discovered by Micheal Faraday (Faraday's law)20)
1834 - Lenz's law formulated by Emil Lenz21)
1869 - Periodic table of elements created by Dimitri Mendeleev22)
1873 - All equations of electromagnetism first summarised by James Clerk Maxwell (Maxwell's equations)23)
1879 - Hall effect for negative charges discovered by Edwin Herbert Hall24)
1881 - The name “hysteresis” is proposed (and the phenomenon studied in iron) by James Ewing25)
1895 - X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen26)
1896 - Radioactivity discovered by Henri Becquerel27)
1897 - Electron discovered by Joseph John Thomson28)
1900 - Magnetic domains (initially called “molecular groups”) proposed by James Ewing29)

20th century

1906 - Theory of ferromagnetism proposed by Pierre Weiss30)
1909 - Charge and mass of electron measured by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher31)
1911 - Atomic nucleus discovered by Ernest Rutherford32)
1911 - Superconductivity in mercury discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes33)
1911 - Proton discovered by Ernest Rutherford34)
1925 - Electron spin discovered by George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit35)
1932 - Neutron discovered by James Chadwick36)
1934 - Method for producing grain-oriented electrical steel patented by Norman P. Goss37)
1935 - Principles of domain theory established by Lev Landau and Evgenii Lifschitz38)


history_of_electromagnetism.txt · Last modified: 2021/03/15 17:27 by stan_zurek

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