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History of electromagnetism

Stan Zurek, History of electromagnetism, Encyclopedia Magnetica,

History of electromagnetism - this page is a collection of important discoveries in the history of electromagnetism, ranging from electrostatics, through magnetostatics, to electromagnetics, waves and optic.

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Ancient times

around 2500 BC - Some documents indicate that compass was used in ancient China1)2)
around 500 BC - Magnetic attraction between lodestone and iron studied by Thales of Miletus3)

Before 18th century

1064 - Discovery that iron quenched from red hot acquires magnetization by Zheng Gongliang (China)4)
1088 - Navigational compass invented by Shen Kua (China)5)
1190 - Compass construction described by Alexander Neckam (England)6)
1269 - Polarity of magnetic poles described by Pierre de Maricourt (also known as Peter Peregrinus)7)
1600 - Movement of compass needle and Eearth's magnetic field described by William Gilbert8) who also proposed the word “electric9), see also: gilbert

18th century

1743 - Horseshoe magnet invented by Daniel Bernoulli (Switzerland)10)
1745 - Method of reliable magnetisation of steel developed by Gowin Knight (England)11)
1745 - Leyden jar (first capacitor) invented by Pieter van Musschenbroek and Ewald von Kleist12)
1747 - Existence of positive and negative electric charges proposed by Benjamin Franklin13)
1750 - Inverse-square law governing forces between poles discovered by John Michell (England)14)
1778 - Diamagnetism discovered by Anton Brugmans (Netherlands) 15)
1785 - Coulomb's law of electrostatic forces formulated by Charles-Augustine de Coulomb (France)16)
1786 - Twitching of frog's leg by electricity studied by Luigi Galvani (Italy)17), see also: galvanic
1800 - Electric battery invented by Alessandro Volta (Italy)18), see also: volt

19th century

1820 - Magnetic field around a wire with electric current discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted19), see also: oersted
1820 - Magnetic force between two wires with current demonstrated by André-Marie Ampère20), see Ampere's law and ampere
1820 - Magnetic force due to current calculated by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart21), see Biot-Savart law
1821 - Principle of electric motor discovered by Michael Faraday22), see also: farad
1824 - Iron-cored electromagnet invented by William Sturgeon23)
1825 - Compass needle rotating above spinning copper disc demonstrated by Francois Arago24)
1826 - Galvanometer invented by Johann Christian Poggendorff25)
1827 - Ohm's law proposed by Georg Ohm26)
1830 - powerful practical electromagnet (lifting over 900 kg) created by Joseph Henry27), see also: henry
1831 - Electromagnetic induction and transformer discovered by Micheal Faraday28), see Faraday's law
1831 - practical DC motor invented by Joseph Henry29)
1834 - Lenz's law formulated by Emil Lenz30)
1834 - Horizontal motor invented by Moritz von Jacobi31)
1842 - Magnetostriction discovered by James Joule32), see also: joule
1845 - The name “magnetic field” introduced by Michael Faraday33)
1869 - Periodic table of elements created by Dimitri Mendeleev34)
1873 - All equations of electromagnetism first summarised by James Clerk Maxwell35), see Maxwell's equations
1879 - Hall effect for negative charges discovered by Edwin Herbert Hall36)
1881 - The name “hysteresis” is proposed (and the phenomenon studied in iron) by James Ewing37)
1882 - Vector notation and analysis proposed by Oliver Heaviside and Josiah Willard Gibbs38)
1884 - Poynting theorem proposed by John Henry Poynting39)
1885 - Maxwell's equations rationalised to just four by Oliver Heaviside40)
1886 - first DC current motor invented by Frank Julian Sprague41)
1887 - Magnetic potentiometer described by A.P. Chattock42)
1890 - Right-hand and left-hand rules proposed by John Ambrose Fleming43)
1892 - Theory of the electron published by Hendrik Lorentz44)
1894 - The word “electron” proposed by G.J. Stoney45)
1895 - X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen46)
1896 - Radioactivity discovered by Henri Becquerel47)
1896 - Rotational loss measured by Francis Gibson Baily48)
1897 - Electron discovered by Joseph John Thomson49)
1900 - Magnetic domains (initially called “molecular groups”) proposed by James Ewing50)

20th century

1905 - Thermionic valve (first diode) patented by John Ambrose Fleming51)
1905 - Photon and photoelectric effect described by Albert Einstein52)
1906 - Theory of ferromagnetism proposed by Pierre Weiss53)
1909 - Charge and mass of electron measured by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher54)
1911 - Atomic nucleus discovered by Ernest Rutherford55)
1911 - Superconductivity in mercury discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes56)
1911 - Proton discovered by Ernest Rutherford57)
1916 - Rogowski coil patented by Walter Rogowski58)
1919 - Barkhausen noise discovered by Heinrich Barkhausen59)
1925 - Electron spin discovered by George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit60)
1931 - Existence of magnetic monopoles proposed by Paul Dirac61)
1932 - Neutron discovered by James Chadwick62)
1934 - Method for producing grain-oriented electrical steel patented by Norman P. Goss63)
1935 - Principles of domain theory established by Lev Landau and Evgenii Lifschitz64)
1936 - Powder material Sendust invented by Hakaru Masumoto65)
1955 - Needle probes (for measuring flux density) patented by Ernst Czeija and Robert Zawischa66)
1967 - Ferromagnetic amorphous alloy demonstrated by Pol Dowez and S.C.H. Lin of California Institute of Technology67)
1980 - Quantum Hall effect discovered by Klaus von Klitzing68)
1984 - Neodymium magnets invented independently by M. Sagawa, S. Fujimura, N. Togawa, H. Yamamoto, Y. Matsura of Sumitomo Special Metals Company, and J. J. Croat, J. F. Herbst, R. W. Lee, F. E. Pinkerton of General Motors Research Laboratories69)
1988 - Nanocrystalline material invented by Yoshihito Yoshizawa, Shigeru Oguma, and Kiyotaka Yamauchi of Hitachi Metals70)


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history_of_electromagnetism.txt · Last modified: 2023/10/15 18:51 by stan_zurek

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